Against all odds, the sun is shining brightly. There is a feeling of excitement hanging in the air – excitement, but also pride. The few cars in the street are being redirected by police and army officials. The many people, however, are allowed to pass through unobstructed on their way to the absolute highlight of the year while helicopters circle above the crowds. Avenida Mariscal López is filled with tens of thousands of people on both sides of the street, wearing yellow and white t-shirts and waving the national flag. Flanked by my fellow international interns, we pick a relatively quiet spot and get to know each other a little bit better in the two hours of waiting that follow. After all, it is only day two of this new adventure on the other side of the Atlantic. Continue reading
Community banking, explained beautifully by Charlene Nemson, is supposed to be one of the safest ways to lend money. In Paraguay, where financial inclusion is very uneven, this type of product was only offered by foundations and NGOs until a couple of years ago. As the market is becoming more competitive, the banks and the financial institutions, or financieras, try to innovate to accomplish their goals.
One of the financieras that incorporated this product to their portfolio was Financiera el Comercio. Traditionally, this type of product does not incorporate other types of guarantees, just the joint guarantee from each of the group’s members. Their word is usually enough. However, the alarming growth of the non-performing loan (NPL) ratio in the last couple of months, particularly in the cities, has led to the Financiera’s overhauling of its processes.
This product should teach people to invest and save and become more accurate with finance. The idea is that once people get financial aid, they can develop their business and eventually earn their own personal loans. In the last couple of years, accentuated competition has brought money into communities traditionally excluded from financial services–but the informal economy in Paraguay is very important, and it has proven difficult to create healthy financial literacy around that. As a result, many people have become so comfortable with existing financing mechanisms that they are not changing their bad habits as quickly as we would hope. It doesn’t help that people in the cities know that microfinance institutions do not have a real guarantee or pressure to make them pay, so they get too relaxed about their obligations.
How can the Financiera convince people to repay their loans?
Asunción is one of many cities claiming to have been built on seven hills. Thanks to microfinance, one of these hills, Loma San Jerónimo, has now become “the first touristic neighborhood of Asunción,” according to SENATUR (the Paraguayan National Tourism Secretary).
The initiative was born inside SENATUR’s 2008/2018 Tourism Development Plan, which sought funds to rescue the history and traditions of this neighborhood. The implementation would be easy, SENATUR suggested, and the office asked Financiera el Comercio (with which they had collaborated on “the best toilets on the road” campaign previously) if they would be interested in offering microcredits within the neighborhood. SENATUR would provide the promotion, ideas, and capacity-building in the area. The Financiera el Comercio immediately accepted the challenge.
The neighborhood was packed with interesting business ideas, and, as a result, Financiera el Comercio soon supported 27 new customers – 21 of them women. The initiative has been so successful that some of the customers have already begun to ask for a second loan in order to improve their businesses. Plus, the Financiera el Comercio has also organized a fair at Loma San Jerónimo this month to celebrate the Microentrepreneur Day, in which all microfinance customers of Financiera el Comercio of the central region were welcome to participate.
Last week we left behind the bumpy streets of Asunción to take a surprisingly well-paved road that crosses the countryside and is itself most often the only trace of human existence for miles. Cows dotted the horizon as grass spread out for miles in every direction. Our destination? Alto Paraná.
The landscape gradually changed as we approached the Brazilian border. A flourishing economy appeared before us, as could be seen by shiny billboards and new, large-scale farmhouses and agricultural shops. However, Luz and Daniel, the loan officers from El Comercio who were our guides for the trip, explained to us an entirely different reality. Just a few miles outside of Santa Rita, the economic center of the area where 80% of the population is represented by wealthy, Brazilian farmers, there lay some old, Paraguayan settlements, still yet to be touched by the region’s seeming development.
We stopped in the village of Tavapy to meet some of El Comercio’s longest-served clients. My first impression of Delia was that she was a humble person who was not afraid to show her true emotions. She was moved to tears upon receiving an international visit from myself and Juan, the other Accion Ambassador for El Comercio. But only a few minutes passed before she was smiling again and began to prouldy show us her animals and tell us about her dreams. This is her story. Continue reading
Love, to most of us, is one of those things that just has no easy measure, similar to art or to happiness. Nevertheless, we insist on sizing and benchmarking it and we spend our lives trying to measure what we all really feel for one another. We might even use material things or actions – like diamonds and presents – to measure how much we love or are loved by some individual or group of people.
Well when I first met with the Planet Rating team last week, my impression was that they were trying to achieve something as difficult as measuring love: Planet Rating was assessing Financiera El Comercio’s Social Performance.
Allow me to take a step back: Planet Rating is a French Social Impact rating agency, specialized in assessing Micro Finance Institutions (MFIs) and currently evaluating Financiera El Comercio. MFI rating agencies work similarly to ordinary rating agencies (the notorious Standard&Poors, Moodys, etc) and typically come up with a final grade based upon both quantitative (financial statements) and qualitative analysis (position in industry, management expertise, etc). No need to get into technicalities and scare away profane readers, precious and loyal so far!
During the remainder of my Accion Ambassadorship at Fundación Paraguaya, I will be focusing on their microfranchise initiative. So, why not dedicate my next few posts on this theme – the advantages, the challenges, and the evolving popularity of this model.
So, what even is Microfranchising?
“Microfranchising is built on the concept of franchising – the development of a turn-key business model, designed for replication, that is inherently less-risky than a standalone start-up enterprise.” The above statement, which I found in a discussion on socialedge.org, successfully summarizes the key elements of this bottom of the pyramid business concept (or the BOP, as it is known within the industry)
In other words, microfranchises have an established business model that enables their franchisees to hit the ground running. In the typical microfranchise, microentrepreneurs receive intensive training, pre-conceived operational guides, and marketing and promotional materials. They are often provided with credit and/or customized funding, ongoing business support, and an incentive scheme to meet sales targets, ensuring long-term sustainability.
The assumption that microfranchises, as opposed to general microenterprises, are inherently less-risky stems from the replication of a successful business model. As a franchise, the product design has already been fine -tuned, the operating procedures adjusted to maximize efficiency, and supplier relationships established using the bargaining power of the larger-scale franchise. Additionally, as the microfranchise expands, microentrepreneurs benefit from growing brand awareness, product innovation, and increasing scale.*
Fundación Paraguaya and VisionSpring
Fundación Paraguaya’s first microfranchise experiment was the kit de lentes (or glasses kit). In 2007, the Fundación began a partnership with VisionSpring (http://www.visionspring.org), a non-profit social enterprise focused on distributing reading glasses to low-income communities. Following VisionSpring’s model, the Fundación has provided local vendors (mostly members of the women’s committees) with “a business in a box,” each containing 12 pairs of glasses of varying magnification, as well as cases, strings, booklets, and a briefcase. The vendors must raise enough capital (or take out a loan) to purchase the kit, which costs about 200,000 Gs, or about $44. They are then trained to perform vision tests and instructed in sales strategies.
The women earn about 20,000 Gs, or about $4.44 per sale.
Other microfranchises that the Fundación is currently trying to jump-start include jewelry-making kits, clothing kits, anti-dengue kits (these contain a variety of mosquito repellents), as well as alimentos (food), such as bread filled with cheese, barbecued meat, empanadas, and others. Last Friday, I accompanied two other interns to Encarnación to see how they were conducting their market surveys. In the next few weeks, I will be designing my own survey and exploring new strategies to increase the sales of current “kits.
Ultimately, Fundación Paraguaya aims to use microfranchising to both diversify and amplify the earnings of its clients, providing them with an opportunity to stabilize their income and better provide for themselves and their families. Furthermore, microfranchising presents an efficient distribution method for needed goods (such as reading glasses and mosquito repellent), selling at affordable prices to those without access.
Microfranchising, however, also has specific challenges. It is essential to maintain low costs and low risk (since the potential franchisees have little extra income to invest) as well as cater to BOP consumers, who are extremely price sensitive.
A potential ice cream microfranchise considered by the Fundación, for example, was just too pricy. It seemed like a great idea to me – the climate in Paraguay is usually very hot, there is a cultural love for ice cream, and the foundation was planning to partner with a well-known brand. However, after exploring the actual costs, it became apparent that the high overhead and steep price structure would hinder the business’s success.
I am now investigating other opportunities, including a retail business for local artisans, and looking into strategies to improve the sales of reading glasses. Stay tuned!
And let me know what you think! In your opinion, is microfranchising an effective way to create sustainable and scalable opportunities for microentrepreneurs?
* The information on microfranchising in this blog post was sourced from the book: Microfranchising: How Social Entrepreneurs are Building a New Road to Development, edited by Nicolas Sireau. I highly recommend it!
I arrived in Asuncion, Paraguay just in time to witness the impeachment of President Fernando Lugo last week. Though I don’t yet have a clear view on the implications of such drastic measure, it seems that incoming president Federico Franco is managing well so far and the country remains peaceful. By the way, Mom, I’m fine!
But where to begin with my first blog post as an Accion Ambassador? I thought I would start with my favorite place, and the one I love to go to whenever I visit a new city: The market.
It is not just my love for cooking and my typical Italian habit of looking for mascarpone cheese (found it!) and good pasta everywhere I go, nor is it my curiosity of strange tropical fruits: I am firmly convinced that one can understand a lot from a country just by observing how people do grocery shopping. Actually, even more interesting is how people eat what they eat altogether, but that is a post for a another day (stay tuned!)